Industry Reports & Findings


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CLEAN TRANSPORTATION FOR HEALTHIER NEIGHBORHOODS AND CLEANER AI

By Environment Washington Research & Policy Center, WashPIRG Foundation, and Frontier Group | July 2018

"Dramatic declines in battery costs and improvements in performance, including expanded driving range, have made electric buses a viable alternative to diesel-powered and other fossil fuel buses."


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E-Buses to Surge Even Faster Than EVs as Conventional Vehicles Fade

By Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF) | May 2018

"The electrification of road transport will move into top gear in the second half of the 2020s, thanks to tumbling battery costs and larger-scale manufacturing, with sales of electric cars racing to 28%, and those of electric buses to 84%, of their respective global markets by 2030."


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9 out of 10 people worldwide breathe polluted air, but more countries are taking action

By World Health Organization | April 2018

"Air pollution levels remain dangerously high in many parts of the world. New data from WHO shows that 9 out of 10 people breathe air containing high levels of pollutants. Updated estimations reveal an alarming death toll of 7 million people every year caused by ambient (outdoor) and household air pollution."


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We Just Breached the 410 PPM Threshold for CO2

By Scientific American | April 2018

"On Tuesday, April 21, the Mauna Loa Observatory recorded its first-ever carbon dioxide reading in excess of 410 parts per million. Carbon dioxide hasn’t reached that height in millions of years. It’s a new atmosphere that humanity will have to contend with, one that’s trapping more heat and causing the climate to change at a quickening rate. Carbon dioxide concentrations have skyrocketed over the past two years due to in part to natural factors like El Niño causing more of it to end up in the atmosphere. But it’s mostly driven by the record amounts of carbon dioxide humans are creating by burning fossil fuels. The Scripps CO2 measurements at Mauna Loa have been supported for many years by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and have more recently been supplemented by Earth Networks, a technology company that is collaborating with Scripps to expand the global GHG monitoring network."


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Electric Buses in Cities Driving Towards Cleaner Air and Lower CO2

By Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF) | March 2018

"Cities around the world are introducing electric buses, driven by growing concerns over urban air quality, carbon emissions and potential operational cost savings. The timing is now right for cities to start shifting to electrified transport but there are still several barriers to widespread adoption. Our analysis of battery cost curves indicates that electric buses will reach unsubsidized upfront cost parity with diesel buses by around 2030. By then, the battery pack in the average e-bus should only account for around 8% of the total e-bus price – down from around 26% in 2016. However, increasing demand for e-buses could bring e-bus battery prices down faster. In this case, electric buses would reach cost parity with diesel buses by the mid-2020s. • E-buses have much lower operating costs and can already be cheaper on a total cost of ownership basis than conventional buses today. A typical bus with a 250kWh battery charging slowly once per day at the depot and operating around 166km/day has a lower total cost of ownership (TCO) than diesel ($1.05/km) or CNG ($1.19/km) buses at $0.99/km. However, a bus with a 350kWh battery using the same charging configuration would not yet be competitive. Its competitiveness improves significantly in large cities, where buses travel above 220km/day."


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Delivering OpportunitY

By Sara Chandler, Joel Espino and Jimmy O’Dea | October 2016

"Life cycle global warming emissions from battery electric buses are more than 70 percent lower than both CNG and diesel buses. Despite this strong climate leadership, many California communities still face immediate and long-term health consequences from exposure to truck and bus pollution. In particular, vulnerable populations, including low-income communities and communities of color, are hit hardest by transportation-related pollution (Frosch et al. 2009). Greater exposure to dirty air is tied to race even more than to income: nearly 90 percent of residents in the most polluted regions of California are people of color, although they make up only about 60 percent of the state’s population (CalEPA 2016). Low-income communities of color are often located near busy roads, freeways, ports, rail yards, distribution centers, and warehouses, all of which are sources of dangerous levels of contamination (CCFC 2016). Until California’s underserved communities become a high priority for investments in the deployment of clean transportation, they will continue to feel the worst impacts of the transportation sector. California’s burgeoning heavy-duty electric vehicle sector presents a unique opportunity to combat poverty, pollution, and climate change."


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Foothill Transit Battery Electric Bus Demonstration Results: Second Report

By Leslie Eudy and Matthew Jeffers | June 2017

"The BEBs had an overall average efficiency of 2.17 kWh per mile, which equates to 17.35 miles per diesel gallon equivalent (mpdge). The CNG buses had an average fuel economy of 3.89 miles per gasoline gallon equivalent (mpgge), which equates to 4.34 mpdge. The operating duty cycle of a bus has a significant effect on fuel economy. On Line 291, the average CNG fuel economy was 2.1 mpdge and the average driving speed (not including stops and idle time) was 18.1 mph. This is similar to the average driving speed (logged) for the BEBs (17.8 mph), providing a more accurate comparison for fuel economy. When comparing the logged data, the BEB fuel economy is more than 8 times higher than that of a CNG bus operating exclusively on Line 291."


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FINANCING THE TRANSITION TO SOOT FREE URBAN BUS FLEETS IN 20 MEGACITIES

By Joshua Miller, Ray Minjares, Tim Dallmann, Lingshi Jin | 2017

"Urban buses produce one-quarter of black carbon emissions from road transport, despite constituting only 1% of the global on-road vehicle fleet. Black carbon is a potent short-lived climate pollutant with a warming impact 900 to 3200 times that of carbon dioxide. As a harmful ultrafine component of particulate matter, black carbon operates as a universal carrier of toxins into the lungs and bloodstream, thereby contributing to premature deaths from outdoor air pollution globally. These black carbon emissions come from older-generation diesel engine technology, found in more than 80% of new buses sold today. Investments in “soot-free” engine technology in urban bus fleets will accelerate progress toward addressing urban air pollution and near-term climate change. This report addresses the opportunities for facilitating, and the barriers to financing, the transition to soot-free urban bus fleets in 20 megacities."


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THE ROAD TO CLEAN AIR Public Health and Global Warming Benefits of Advanced Clean Car Standards

"The Road to Clean Air is a report by the American Lung Association in California showing that California could avoid $7.2 billion in health and societal costs and reduce all major air pollution-related health impacts. In fact, over 90 percent of Californians live in areas with serious air quality problems, largely due to our transportation sector. The American Lung Association’s 2011 State of the Air Report found that eight of the nation’s ten most ozone-polluted cities were in California, including all of the top seven. For particulate pollution, six California cities made the most-polluted list, including the top two. Measures to clean up vehicles, including the advanced clean car regulations and the zero-emission vehicle regulation are at the top of the list of measures that make a difference in meeting California’s federal obligations." 


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Clean Air Future Health and Climate Benefits of Zero Emission Vehicles

By Bonnie Holmes-Gen and Will Barrett | October 2016

"This report was produced by the American Lung Association in California to illustrate the billions of dollars in health and other societal damages caused by passenger vehicle pollution today, and to highlight the benefits of the ongoing transition to zero emission technologies across the passenger vehicle fleet. From coast to coast, the over-reliance on fossil fuels for nearly all transportation damages our air, our health, our environment and our economy. Fortunately, the transition to zero emission technologies in the transportation sector is underway, promising cleaner air, a healthier climate, and creating lasting benefits."


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Electric Bus Analysis for New York City Transit

By Judah Aber | May 2016

"NYC Transit and MTA bus have a combined fleet of about 5,700 buses for public transportation in New York City. The fleet currently consists of a mix of diesel, hybrid diesel and CNG (compressed natural gas) buses. Electric buses have vastly lower greenhouse gas(GHG) emissions than the current fleet. Changing the entire fleet of buses to electric buses would result in a reduction of emissions within the city of approximately 575,000 metric tons of CO2e per year. The net savings, including the incremental power generation required for the electric buses is nearly 500,000 metric tons of CO2e assuming the current mix of power generation in New York City and Westchester (EPA). From a financial perspective, the savings associated with fuel (cost of diesel vs. cost of electricity) and with bus maintenance more than offsets the higher cost of electric buses including the cost of the recharging infrastructure over the lifetime of a bus. Switching to electric buses eliminates the air pollution caused by diesel bus fuel combustion. The resulting health benefit to the populous of the city from the reduction of respiratory and other diseases is estimated at $150k per bus based on EPA data."


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Global Electric Bus Market Research Report Insights, Opportunity Analysis, Market Shares and Forecast, 2017 - 2023

By Occams Business Research and Consulting | November 2017

The global electric bus market is expected to grow at a CAGR of over 27.5% during the period of 2016-2023. These buses, with zero emission, are more environmentally friendly as compared to conventional buses. The ability of these buses to reduce dependency on fossil fuels and emissions will lead to its increased adoption during the forecasted period. With technological advancements in automotive sector, governments of different countries are trying to minimize the pollution. 


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2017 PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION FACT BOOK

By MacPherson Hughes-Cromwick and Matthew Dickens | March 2018

In 2009, hybrid-electric and pure battery-electric powered buses only comprised 4.9% of the transit market, but by 2015, this segment grew to 17.3% of the market. The percentage also continues to increase every year, as more fossil-fuel powered buses retire. APTA estimates that each $1 billion spent in public transit supports 50,000 jobs and $642 million in tax revenue.


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2017 Case Study Report: CITIES ARE READY FOR 100% CLEAN ENERGY

By Sierra Club | 2017

"Cities and towns across the United States have assumed a new mantle of leadership over the past year: establishing bold commitments to move away from dirty fuels and repower their communities with 100% clean, renewable energy. This report showcases 10 cities that are doing just that: they are committed to 100% clean, renewable energy and working to realize that vision. At the time of this publication, 50 cities in the United States have committed to 100% renewable energy in one or more energy-use sector: electricity, buildings, or transportation.